Phase I: 1947-54, that was the phase when Pakistan was passing her initial life. There were serious problems and the two countries, India and Pakistan, were not friends. Pakistan was to countenance early problems, Most of the problems were caused by the sudden and unplanned withdrawal of British from the subcontinent. Pakistan India.
Pakistan’s Issues with India (1947-54)
Unfair Boundary Distribution
A boundary commission was set up under a British Chairman, Sir Cyril Redcliff. He misused his powers and handed over Muslim majority areas like Gurdaspur, Ferozpur, and Jullander to India hence providing them a gateway to Kashmir. Quaid-e-Azam called it “An unjust, incomprehensible and even perverse award.”
The Massacre of Muslim Refugees in India
On the birth of Pakistan, Hindus and Sikhs became more furious. In a planned move, Muslim properties were set on fire and they were compelled to leave Bharat for Pakistan with nothing but their lives. Millions of refugees were killed before they reached Pakistan. Many migrants were looted and had to be provided boarding immediately as they reached Pakistan.
Division of Military and Financial Assets
In order to embarrass Pakistan financially, India did a lot of dishonesty in the matters of Pakistan which were concerned with its benefits. Pakistan was promised to get Rs.750 million but the Bharat Government refused to give. And Pakistan received only 200 million. Pakistan also did not receive the due share of the military assets. This dishonest attitude put Pakistan into great difficulties.
Canal Water Dispute
Most of the river flowing in Pakistan have their origin in India. In 1948, India stopped water supply to Pakistani canals to damage the Pakistani agriculture. However on 9th September, 1%0 on agreement called “Indus Basin Treaty” was signed between the two countries.
Jammu and Kashmir dispute is the most important and unsolved problem. Kashmir is the natural part of Pakistan because at the time of partition 85% of the Kashmir’s total population was Muslim. The Hindu dogra rule, who was secretly with the Government of India declared Kashmir as a part of India. Pakistan has continuously insisted that Kashmir must get their right of self-determination but due to non-cooperation of India, Kashmir issue still remain unsolved.
The constituent assembly failed to frame a Constitution even in eight years. Lack of a permanent constitution created, chances of unscrupulous interference in democratic progress of Pakistan.
Annexation of Princely States
All Indian princely states were given the right to link up with either of dominions. However, the fate of following states remained undecided.
The Muslim Nawab governing junagadh favored in acceding to Pakistan. But Indian Government sent Army troops towards Junagadh and occupied the state by force in November,1947.
Hyderabad Deccan was the largest and richest, state ruled by Muslim ruler Nizam who decided to remain independent. But pressure tactics began to be applied by Indian Government and Mount Batten. India attacked Hyderabad on 13th September 1948 and forcibly annexed this state to India.
Due to transfer of Muslim majority areas to Bharat and unfair demarcation, electricity system of West Punjab was disrupted, because all power stations were at Mundi, a predominantly Muslim majority area, gifted to Bharat but Quaid-e-Azam said: “If we are to exist as a nation, we will have to face the problems with determination and force.”