The word “Totalitarianism” means absolute control of the state’s affairs by one single group or a party. This system was not known before the emergence of technological society.
It is a system of government in which all the resources of man, society, and as well as state are controlled by a single authority directly. This authority may be a group of elite, a political party, or a permanent institution. This definition provides that all the significant sources of power be effectively controlled by a single and identifiable party. Diffusion power does not exist. There may be a great variety of separate hierarchies but in reality all the individuals holding position of authority, are members of the one, ruling political party, on the same hand, all substructures are controlled by the apex of the party.
Functions of Totalitarian System
Totalitarianism has become a reality in a few countries. This system works on few principles, these are discussed below: centralization, secrecy, non-tolerated resistance, coercion, and internationalism.
In all these systems, all the powers flow from central authority. No institution or structure can work independently. This concentration of power calls for highly developed means of information, social control, and as well as high degree of technical development in the economic sector. In this centralized system, tries to discourage resistance by coercion and spreading paralysis among potential opponents through terror and confusion. This system teaches, better to have consents or at least non-resistance on the part of governed.
The principle of secrecy is strictly observed while persuasion campaign and propaganda is launched with the full use of modern means and mass communication as well. An ideology is raised which becomes a source of legitimacy, a guide to an action and justification for an excess. Creative interpretations are made to adjust the changing needs of dynamic society.
Vision of Totalitarianism
The totalitarianism has dreamed of a worldwide system of total control to bring all the humanity to one, but this has been shattered due to realities of a diverse world.
Future of Totalitarianism
The totalitarian system, firstly, developed in Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R), eastern European countries and Communist China, is moving gradually away from its extreme features, the scientific developments and researches, mechanical advancement, and educational standard have created a change in the concept of man about himself and the universe. The change has created the social pressures in the societies of Eastern European states, United Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R), and China, which explained that it is impossible to maintain total control over the dynamic nature of man and society. In the present age, the Cultural Revolution in China, the appeal for making of new society in United Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R), and Eastern European states, are the instances in this regard. Ultimately, this appeal has changed the entire totalitarian structure of Eastern European states, Baltic States, Central Asian Republics, and the Soviet Union’s society, which is now known as “Common Wealth of Independent States” (CIS). A degree of liberation has replaced the totalitarian tendencies in political, social, and as well as in economic aspects of the states.